Figure 2: Steelmaking routes The BF-BOF route produces steel using raw materials such as iron ore, coal, limestone and steel scrap. About 75% of steel is produced using the BF-BOF route. First, iron ores are reduced to iron, also called hot metal or pig iron
With the advent of the BOF steelmaking process, the nature of the slags has changed. More lime is added to the flux to control phosphorus and sulfur in the steel. BOF slags are composed primarily of lime and iron oxides and contain an average of 5.7(7).
Steelmaking accounts for circa 7% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions worldwide.1) The integrated steelmaking route (blast furnace, BF – basic oxygen furnace, BOF) is the dom
Steel - Steel - Open-hearth steelmaking: Though it has been almost completely replaced by BOF and EAF steelmaking in many highly industrialized countries, the open hearth nevertheless accounts for about one-sixth of all steel produced worldwide. The open-hearth furnace (OHF) uses the heat of coustion of gaseous or liquid fuels to convert a charge of scrap and liquid blast-furnace iron to
The modeling and control problems of basic oxygen furnace(BOF) steelmaking process with nonlinearity,large time-delay,uncertainty and complexity are discussed.Considering the problem of poor effect and precision of the BOF steelmaking control,a radial base
2003/10/7· Yield loss in steelmaking is a function of waste oxide production, slag formation, and in-plant scrap returns. In addition, off-spec steel that is returned from the customer represents a substantial yield loss since this product must be scrapped. Finally, the
The compositions of BOF slag at first deslagging were presented in CaO–SiO 2 –FeO ternary phase diagram at 1,673 K. As shown in Figure 3 , the composition mainly loe in the region of liquid and the 2CaO·SiO 2 (s)-bearing region, which means the precipitation of 2CaO·SiO 2 at the temperature.
BOF steelmaking is a stochastic process. Oxygen blowing produces lot of turbulent in the phases during hot metal refining. The amount of droplets emulsified in the slag, amount of lime dissolution, carbon removal rate, intensity of oxygen jet impinging the bath, lance distance, bottom stirring rate due to plugging of tuyeres etc. may vary from one heat to the other.
Steelmaking in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) In simple terms, the principle of oxygen steelmaking is to blow oxygen into carbon -rich hot metal (typical carbon content is about 4 - …
The BOF is the keystone of IM steelmaking As the BOF field encountered perfection in the 80s (8), it has simply consolidated its position in the 90s. A BOF vessel typically taps 220 t of liquid steel every 30 to 45 min at 1635 °C, containing 0.100 % carbon and 500-1000 ppm oxygen.
However, the compositions can be used in any steelmaking process requiring a tundish. Historically, steel production utilized blast furnace iron and a scrap charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) or scrap melting in an electric arc furnace to produce ingots of cast steel for reheating and rolling into manufacturing stock.
* Technical contribution to the 45th Steelmaking Seminar, May 25th-28th, 2014, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. 5 Figure 3. 150 t BOF shop #1 at Baoshan Iron & Steel Company (Meishan) [5,6]. All three BOF converters are equipped with the TBM bottom stirring
The function of this VTD is very similar to RH. The ladle containing liquid steel is put inside a vacuum tank, and the gaseous element is well evacuated. Then …
as a function of time obtained from the global model with the study of Cicutti et al. It can Meyer, et al., "Slag-Metal Emulsions and Their Importance in Bof Steelmaking," JOM, Vol.20, 968, pp. 35-42. Title Kinetics of decarburization reaction in oxygen
Chapter 6 Gas Analyzers 6-4 background gas from which the SO 2 fluorescence radiation can be measured. Consequently these analyzers have been successfully employed in dilution systems. 6.2.2 Corrections If the instrumentation cannot be refined to minimize
Steel slag from BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) steelmaking process was cooled by nature in the past. This material will swell and crack if directly used for road paving. Kingtech uses water quench process to release heat stress. The product size is ranged 2-3mm
2020/8/8· In steel: Basic oxygen steelmaking The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is a refractory-lined, tiltable converter into which a vertically movable, water-cooled lance is inserted to blow oxygen through nozzles at supersonic velocity onto the charge (see figure). The use
A predominantly liquid and MgO-saturated slag is preferred in EAF and BOF steelmaking. Fully liquid slag provides a better environment for faster mass transfer due to lower bulk viscosities and larger liquid slag volume and these help dephosphorization and desulfurization. Also, an MgO-saturated slag would be preferable in order to increase the lifetime of furnace refractory lining by reducing
BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) steelmaking is a very complex industry process and the endpoint control is an important operation in the later period of BOF steelmaking. Owing to the environment is so harsh and the temperature is so high that it is very difficult to measure the temperature and contents continuously and accurately, therefore, we can not use normal method of process control.
At SSAB Europe''s steel plant in Luleå, new BOF process control devices are installed with the purpose to investigate the possibility for developing a dynamic system for slopping prediction. A main feature of this system is steelmaking vessel vibration measurements and audiometry to estimate foam height.
A new BOF end-point control model was designed, which was based on the character of carbon oxygen reaction in Basic Oxygen Furnace steelmaking process. The image capture and transformation system was established by Video for Windows (VFW) library function, which is a video software development package promoted by Microsoft Corporation.
The predicted sulphur content in ladle as a function of time agrees well with the experimental data. Interaction behaviour between top blown jet and molten steel during BOF steelmaking process L.L. Cao et al. Ironmaking & Steelmaking Volume 45, 2018